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Dietary inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO) is reported to reduce large intestinal formation of putatively toxic metabolites derived from fermentable proteins (fCP). However, the influence of diets high in fCP concentration on epithelial response and interaction with fCHO is still unclear. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with low fCP/low fCHO [14.5% crude protein (CP)/14.5% total dietary fiber (TDF)]; low fCP/high fCHO (14.8% CP/16.6% TDF); high fCP low fCHO (19.8% CP/14.5% TDF); and high fCP/high fCHO (20.1% CP/18.0% TDF) as dietary treatments. After 21-23 d, pigs were killed and colon digesta and tissue samples analyzed for indices of microbial ecology, tissue expression of genes for cell turnover, cytokines, mucus genes (MUC), and oxidative stress indices. Pig performance was unaffected by diet. fCP increased (P < 0.05) cell counts of clostridia in the Clostridium leptum group and total short and branched chain fatty acids, ammonia, putrescine, histamine, and spermidine concentrations, whereas high fCHO increased (P < 0.05) cell counts of clostridia in the C. leptum and C. coccoides groups, shifted the acetate to propionate ratio toward acetate (P < 0.05), and reduced ammonia and putrescine (P < 0.05). High dietary fCP increased (P < 0.05) expression of PCNA, IL1β, IL10, TGFβ, MUC1, MUC2, and MUC20, irrespective of fCHO concentration. The ratio of glutathione:glutathione disulfide was reduced (P < 0.05) by fCP and the expression of glutathione transferase was reduced by fCHO (P < 0.05). In conclusion, fermentable fiber ameliorates fermentable protein-induced changes in most measures of luminal microbial ecology but not the mucosal response in the large intestine of pigs.