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This paper reports a survey conducted in France during 2011 to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics against horse cyathostomins. A total of 40 farms and 1089 horses were screened for the presence of cyathostomins. All farms but one were positive, with an overall animal infection rate of 53.7%, ranging from 9% to 83% on individual farms. On 445 horses from 30 of these farms, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed to evaluate the efficacy of oral formulations of fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX). Calculation of the mean FECR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) around the mean was performed using bootstrap analysis. Resistance to FBZ was found on 17 of 18 farms investigated, with a mean reduction of 57% (95% CI: 38.5-71.2%). Suspected resistance for PYR was found on 6 of 30 farms, and confirmed on another 3 of 30 farms, with a mean reduction for PYR of 94.7% (95% CI: 88.9-98.5%). Reduced efficacy simultaneously of FBZ and PYR was found in 7 farms. Reduced efficacy of IVM was found in one animal on one farm and of MOX in one animal on another farm, and was combined with resistance against FBZ and/or PYR. These results indicate that single and multiple drug resistance and reduced efficacy in equine cyathostomins is present in France. Macrocylic lactones proved to be highly effective compounds against cyathostomins, with reduced efficacy for IVM and MOX in two farms only. These results extend present knowledge on the occurrence of drug resistant cyathostomins in Europe, and illustrate the necessity to use anthelmintics in appropriate worm control programmes.