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Equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) cause infections of horses worldwide. While both EHV-1 and EHV-4 cause respiratory disease, abortion and myeloencephalopathy are observed after infection with EHV-1 in the vast majority of cases. Disease control is achieved by hygiene measures that include immunization with either inactivated or modified live virus (MLV) vaccine preparations. We here compared the efficacy of commercially available vaccines, an EHV-1/EHV-4 inactivated combination and an MLV vaccine, with respect to induction of humoral responses and protection of clinical disease (abortion) in pregnant mares and foals on a large stud with a total of approximately 3500 horses. The MLV vaccine was administered twice during pregnancy (months 5 and 8 of gestation) to 383 mares (49.4%), while the inactivated vaccine was administered three times (months 5, 7, and 9) to 392 mares (50.6%). From the vaccinated mares, 192 (MLV) and 150 (inactivated) were randomly selected for serological analyses. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to magnitude or duration of the humoral responses as assessed by serum neutralization assays (median range from 1:42 to 1:130) and probing for EHV-1-specific IgG isotypes, although neutralizing responses were higher in animals vaccinated with the MLV preparation at all time points sampled. The total number of abortions in the study population was 55/775 (7.1%), 9 of which were attributed to EHV-1. Seven of the abortions were in the inactivated and two in the MLV vaccine group (p=0.16). When foals of vaccinated mares were followed up, a dramatic drop of serum neutralizing titers (median below 1:8) was observed in all groups, indicating that the half-life of maternally derived antibody is less than 4 weeks.