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The objective of the conducted meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of the treatment of bovine endometritis with PGF(2α) by statistical means. Postpartum uterine infections have a high prevalence and a very negative effect on reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Because of a wide discordance between research results, a meta-analysis of the efficacy of the treatment of bovine endometritis with PGF(2α) was conducted. A comprehensive literature search was performed using online databases to reveal a total of 2,307 references. In addition, 5 articles were retrieved by reviewing citations. After applying specific exclusion criteria and evaluating specific evidence parameters, 5 publications, comprising 6 trials, were eligible for being analyzed by means of meta-analysis. Data for each trial were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis software Review Manager (version 5.1; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Estimated effect sizes of PGF(2α) were calculated on calving to first service and calving to conception interval. Prostaglandin F(2α) treatment of cows with chronic endometritis had a negative effect on both reproductive performance parameters. Heterogeneity was substantial for calving to first service and calving to conception interval [I(2) (measure of variation beyond chance)=100 and 87%, respectively]; therefore, random-effects models were used. Sensitivity analysis as well as subgroup analysis showed that the performance of randomization was influential in modifying effect size of PGF(2α) treatment. The funnel plot illustrated a publication bias toward smaller studies that reported a prolonged calving to conception interval after a PGF(2α) treatment. We conclude that the investigation of this subject by means of meta-analysis did not reveal an improvement of reproductive performance of cows with endometritis after treatment with PGF(2α). Furthermore, there is a shortage of comparable high quality studies investigating reproductive performance after PGF(2α) treatment of cows with chronic endometritis.