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Between March 2004 and February 2005, the monthly incidence of trypanosome infections was measured in cattle from nine sentinel herds in the Adamaoua province of Cameroon. Three herds of 20 cattle each were kept on the plateau which has been cleared from tsetse flies about 10 years ago, three other herds were grazing in the tsetse infested valley whereas the last three were herded in the buffer zone. The cross-sectional study showed that the initial trypanosomosis prevalence was 1.8, 5.2 and 2.0% on the plateau, in the buffer zone and the valley, respectively. During the longitudinal study, the trypanosomosis incidence was high in the valley (3.7-20%) and the buffer zone (1.8-13.4%), whereas it was significantly lower (0-2.1%) on the plateau. Tsetse flies, mainly Glossina morsitans submorsitans and a few G. tachinoides, were caught in the valley and the buffer zone, but none on the plateau. The data indicate a low trypanosomosis risk on the plateau. Further entomological studies, however, are required to clarify the origin of the trypanosome infections on the plateau.