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The impact of environmental micro-organisms as well as their fragments and components, especially endotoxins, on human health is increasingly recognised. Different syndromes have been described in connection with inhaled air-borne microbiological contamination, e.g, sick building syndrome, humidifier lung, organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and "Monday illness" . Air-conditioning systems intensify this problem, as does the collection of biological waste in households, which represents a substantial source of air-born e pollution. In 1995 we described a new method for the detect ion or pyrogenic contamination. This sensitive test (in vitro pyrogen test: IPT ) uses the natural reaction of the immune system to detect a broad spectrum of pyrogens in hum an blond. Safety tests in injectable drugs represent the ma in application and the test has been success fully validated for inclusion into the Euro pea n Pharmacopoeia. Here, the test was adapted to the detection of environmental air-borne pyrogens. Air was drawn through a filter which was then incubated directly with diluted human whole blood . The release of the inflammatory cytokine , interleukin-1β (IL-1β), was measured by ELlSA . ln animal stables, up to 3 x 106 endotoxin equivalent units (EEU) were found per cubic meter of air.