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In the study presented here the relationship between the hygienic condition and the concentration of different air contaminants in two pig fattening houses was investigated. Deficiencies in routine cleaning, which were characterized by an increased soiling of animals and stable surfaces with faeces, led to increased concentrations of airborne dust, airborne endotoxins as well as increased numbers of total airborne bacteria and airborne gram-negative bacteria. However these deficiencies were not reflected by the concentration of airborne Clostridium perfringens which were earlier postulated as an indicator of faecal pollution in the air of cattle barns. Furthermore the results of this study were used to discuss advantages and disadvantages of impingement and impaction for the sampling of airborne microorganisms in animal houses.