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Inhalation of bioaerosols from animal houses can induce acute inflammatory reactions in the respiratory tract. Determination of the concentration of airborne endotoxins is widely used to characterize this risk. In this study, the activity of bioaerosol samples from a duck-fattening unit to induce interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in human blood and to react with Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) was investigated. The activity detected in the whole blood assay correlated well with the endotoxic activity found in the LAL assay (Spearmen's rho = 0.902). However in all samples, the inflammation-inducing potential was overestimated by the LAL assay. It is assumed that this overestimation could be, in part, a result of an overestimation of the inflammatory potential of endotoxins originating from Pseudomonadaceae by the LAL assay. Pseudomonadaceae were regularly isolated from the air of the duck-fattening unit. The results presented here indicate that the whole blood assay can be used besides the LAL assay as an additional method to characterize the inflammation-inducing potential of bioaerosols.