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This is a case report of enteric protothecosis caused by Prototheca zopfii in an eight-year-old male mixed breed dog with a history of chronic bloody diarrhea, loss of appetite and weight loss. Algae were isolated from rectal scrapings in defibrinated sheep blood agar and dextrose Sabouraud agar. Cytological evaluation showed the presence of globular and cylindrical organisms with a defined capsule and variable number of endospores, characteristic of the genus Prototheca, in the rectum of the animal. Scanning electron microscopy of P. zopfii strains at different development stages confirmed the diagnosis of algal infection. Molecular identification using a conserved 18S rDNA gene sequence determined that the strain belonged to genotype 2. This report describes success on treatment of canine protothecosis, diagnosed based on clinical, cytological, microbiological, scanning electron microscopy and genotypical findings.