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Camels are highly susceptible to brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. Difficulties can arise in diagnosis of camel brucellosis, especially as this disease provokes only few clinical signs in contrast to its clinical course in cattle. Because none of the commonly used serological test can be perceived as a perfect test for Brucella diagnosis in camel and most serological tests used for camels have been directly transposed from cattle without adequate validation, an incorrect diagnosis may occur when diagnosis is based on serology alone. Of imminent concern is the fact that brucellosis can be easily transmitted from animals or their products to humans mainly via milk. In many developing countries in the arid areas of Asia and Africa, camels are still the most important productive livestock for nomadic populations. Therefore, we reviewed the literatures on camel brucellosis to highlight the epidemiologic, economic and public health impact of camel brucellosis as a basis for designing effective control strategies.