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The purpose of this study was to examine potential prophylactic effects of a coarse feed structure and/or potassium diformate (KDF as feed additive) addition to diets on the microflora of the digestive tract in reared piglets experimentally infected with Salmonella Derby. The results show that coarse grinding as well as KDF addition are able to influence positively the intestinal flora and are capable to reduce Salmonella excretion of infected piglets. Coarse grinding of main ingredients (e.g. cereals) led to an increased number of lactobacilli as well as to higher counts of Gram-positive coccoid bacteria in the colon chyme, while KDF resulted in a tendency towards lower counts of Escherichia coli within the digestive tract. Moreover, a combination of both treatments influenced the composition of the gastrointestinal flora quite positively. Furthermore, the combination of these dietetic measures resulted in a reduced Salmonella excretion rate, shorter Salmonella shedding period and a reduced translocation of Salmonella within the infected piglets. The positive effects of combining both treatments led to a significantly reduced spreading of Salmonella within the group of pigs, which might be used to diminish Salmonella prevalence in pig production.