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Although significant advances have been made in terms of pharmacological, catheter-based, and surgical palliation, heart failure remains a fatal disease. As a curative concept, regenerative medicine aims at the restoration of the physiologic cellular composition of diseased organs. So far, clinical cardiac regeneration attempts have only been moderately successful, but a better understanding of myocardial cell homeostasis and somatic as well as embryonic stem cell biology has opened the door for the development of more potent therapeutic cardiac regeneration strategies. Accumulating evidence indicates that the postnatal mammalian heart retains a pool of tissue-specific progenitor cells and is also repopulated by cells from extracardiac sources. However, this intrinsic myocardial regeneration potential clearly needs to be augmented by either manipulation of the cell cycle of differentiated cells, activation of resident cardiac progenitor cells, and/or the transplantation of exogenous cells. This review summarizes the recent developments in cardiac regenerative medicine, many of which may find their way into the clinical setting in the foreseeable future.