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The equine putative chloride channel protein eCLCA1 is thought to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) via modulation of the hydration of airway mucins. A recent study revealed a strong increase of eCLCA1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the lungs of horses with RAO. In this study, eCLCA1 protein and mRNA expression were quantified in airway goblet cells of 9 horses affected with RAO and 9 control horses by using immunohistochemistry and laser microdissection followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Horses affected by RAO had strong goblet cell metaplasia in bronchioles and goblet cell hyperplasia in bronchi and the trachea. Expression of the eCLCA1 protein was tightly linked to all airway goblet cells in both groups. No differences were detected in the ratio of eCLCA1 mRNA copy numbers to the mRNA copy numbers of the housekeeping gene EF-1a per goblet cell between horses affected with RAO and unaffected horses, suggesting that the increase in eCLCA1 expression is because of increased numbers of goblet cells and not transcriptional upregulation of the eCLCA1 gene. In addition, biochemical analyses of the eCLCA1 protein after in vitro translation and heterologous expression in cultured cells revealed that eCLCA1 is a secreted glycoprotein and not an integral membrane protein. Taken together, the results suggest that eCLCA1 mediates its effect as a soluble constituent of airway mucins that is overexpressed in RAO airways because of goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia, not transcriptional upregulation.