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A 1.5-yr-old captive male Gambian giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) died after suffering from anorexia, weakness, and dyspnea for 3 wk. Thoracic radiographs of thorax and abdomen and computed tomography showed a severe biventricular enlargement of the heart and a moderate hepatomegaly. Necropsy revealed a severe, bilateral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilation of the right ventricle due to multifocal bilateral, valvular endocardiosis of all atrioventricular valves and acute hepatic congestion. Histologically, the atrioventricular valves were multifocally thickened by a marked endocardiosis with stromal accumulation of Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, mucinous material. Although common in dogs, endocardiosis has not been described in Nesomyidaes. As in other affected species, the pathogenesis of endocardiosis in this species remains unclear.