Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin



    Molecular pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) (2011)

    Zeitschriftenartikel / wissenschaftlicher Beitrag
    Olias, Philipp
    Schade, Benjamin
    Mehlhorn, Heinz
    Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases; 11(7) — S. 1564–1576
    ISSN: 1567-1348
    DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2011.08.006
    Pubmed: 21906696
    Institut für Tierpathologie

    Robert-von-Ostertag-Str. 15
    Gebäude 12
    14163 Berlin
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    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    Until recently, besnoitiosis has been a neglected disease of domestic animals. Now, a geographic expansion of the causing protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti in livestock has been recognized and the disease in cattle is considered emerging in Europe. Bovine besnoitiosis leads to significant economic losses by a decline in milk production, sterility, transient or permanent infertility of bulls, skin lesions and increase of mortality in affected cattle population. Phylogenetically, the Besnoitia genus is closest related to the well studied and medically important protozoans, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. In contrast, discriminative molecular markers to type and subtype large mammalian Besnoitia species (B. besnoiti, B. caprae, B. tarandi, B. bennetti) on a relevant level of species and strains are lacking. Similarly, these cyst-forming parasites may use two hosts to fulfill their life cycle, but this has not been proven for all large mammalian Besnoitia species yet. Most important though, the final hosts and transmission routes of these Besnoitia species remain mysterious. Here, we review aspects of parasite's pathology, speciation, phylogeny, epidemiology and transmission with a special focus on recent molecular studies of all to date known Besnoitia species. Using an integrated approach, we have tried to highlight some promising directions for future research.