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The prevalence of EHV-2 in 27 horses with keratoconjunctivitis and 21 clinically healthy horses of different ages and stocks were analyzed. We demonstrated that EHV-2 was present in 12 keratoconjunctivitis cases as shown by nested PCR on ocular swabs. This is statistically more often than in the control group, where only two ocular swabs were EHV-2 positive. Cocultivation was successful on peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy and diseased horses but not on swabs. We isolated ten EHV-2 strains from diseased and nine from control horses, whereas 16 isolates showed different restriction enzyme patterns. The results of immunfluorescence and neutralization tests are predictory only in combination with the nested PCR data on ocular swabs. A successful antiviral treatment in nine out of 16 cases supports the aetiological role of EHV-2 in this ocular disease.