Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin



    Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: the secret of making sweet milk from sour dough (2010)

    Zeitschriftenartikel / wissenschaftlicher Beitrag
    Aschenbach, J. R.
    Kristensen, N. B.
    Donkin, S. S.
    Hammon, H. M.
    Penner, G. B.
    International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; 62(12) — S. 869–877
    ISSN: 1521-6551
    Pubmed: 21171012
    Institut für Veterinär-Physiologie

    Oertzenweg 19 b
    14163 Berlin
    +49 30 838 62600

    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    Gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to support glucose homeostasis when nutritional supply with glucose is insufficient. Because ingested carbohydrates are efficiently fermented to short-chain fatty acids in the rumen, ruminants are required to meet the largest part of their glucose demand by de novo genesis after weaning. The qualitative difference to nonruminant species is that propionate originating from ruminal metabolism is the major substrate for gluconeogenesis. Disposal of propionate into gluconeogenesis via propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) has a high metabolic priority and continues even if glucose is exogenously supplied. Gluconeogenesis is regulated at the transcriptional and several posttranscriptional levels and is under hormonal control (primarily insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone). Transcriptional regulation is relevant for regulating precursor entry into gluconeogenesis (propionate, alanine and other amino acids, lactate, and glycerol). Promoters of the bovine pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and PEPCK genes are directly controlled by metabolic products. The final steps decisive for glucose release (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase) appear to be highly dependent on posttranscriptional regulation according to actual glucose status. Glucogenic precursor entry, together with hepatic glycogen dynamics, is mostly sufficient to meet the needs for hepatic glucose output except in high-producing dairy cows during the transition from the dry period to peak lactation. Lactating cows adapt to the increased glucose requirement for lactose production by mobilization of endogenous glucogenic substrates and increased hepatic PC expression. If these adaptations fail, lipid metabolism may be altered leading to fatty liver and ketosis. Increasing feed intake and provision of glucogenic precursors from the diet are important to ameliorate these disturbances. An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying gluconeogenesis may further improve our options to enhance the postpartum health status of dairy cows.