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Two types of transporters are involved in the brush border membrane hexose transport in the small intestine of higher organisms: i) facilitated glucose transporters (GLUT-2) and ii) Na+ coupled glucose transporters (SGLT-1). The activity of SGLT-1 is regulated by dietary substrate levels in some species. In the present study, mRNA expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 were determined in the chicken small intestine after exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) because previous studies had shown that intestinal glucose transport is influenced by chronic exposure to deoxynivalenol.
Materials and Methods:
Broiler chicken were fed a diet containing 0 (control), 1 or 5 mg/kg DON. Immediately after slaughter at day 35, intestinal pieces of the mid-duodenum and mid-jejunum were washed four times in sterile, ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline and immersed in the RNA stabilizing agent, RNA-later (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Total RNA was extracted with a commercial extraction kit (RNeasy Protect Mini Kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). RT-PCR was performed using primers for chicken SGLT-1, GLUT-2 and GAPDH. The software REST2005 was used to calculate expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 relative to GAPDH.
The relative expression of SGLT-1 normalized to GAPDH and calibrated to the control group
was 0.208 and 0.406 in the duodenal tissue, and 0.197 and 0.134 in the jejunal tissue for both deoxynivalenoltreated groups (1 and 5), respectively. The normalized expression of GLUT-2 relative to control animals was 0.384 and 0.657 in the duodenal tissue, and 0.946 and 0.990 in the jejunal tissue for both deoxynivalenol-treated groups (1 and 5), respectively. The results indicated that SGLT-1 was down-regulated in duodenal and jejunal
tissues of both trial groups (P < 0.01). GLUT-2 was down-regulated only in duodenal tissues for both DON groups.
DON suppressed the mRNA abundance of intestinal glucose transporters in chicken,
implying that DON can indeed alter the expression levels of nutrient transporters.