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Anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication was retrospectively evaluated in 20 bleeding dogs at the Small Animal Clinic, University of Berlin. The most common presenting signs were lethargy (90%), pallor (75%), and dyspnoea (65%). 17 dogs bled into body cavities or developed haematomas and 8 dogs had surface bleeding. Pleural effusions, pulmonary infiltrates, and pericardial effusions were detected in 11, 9, and 1 dog, respectively. An abdominal effusion was noted in 7 dogs, and one dog had a hemometra. 90% of the dogs were anaemic, 60% mildly to moderately thrombocytopenic, and 80% (12/15) had a hypoproteinaemia. The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were markedly prolonged in all dogs (PT: 40_100 seconds, aPTT: 27.3_100 seconds) [normal range PT: 14.6-20.4 seconds; aPTT: 13.2-18.2 seconds] and approximately half of the dogs had either a normo- (44%, 4/9) or hyperfibrinogenaemia (56%, 5/9) [1.3-3.3 g/l]. No fibrin degradation products (FDP) were detected in the plasma of 9 dogs tested. Treatment included the administration of vitamin K1 (20/20), DEA 1.1 compatible whole blood (4/20), packed red blood cells (11/20), and/or fresh frozen plasma (19/20), as well as supportive care. Initially, all dogs received vitamin K1 subcutaneously (2.5-5.8 mg/kg body weight). On the second and third day vitamin K1 at a dose of 1.5 to 3.1 mg/kg twice daily was administered subcutaneously and orally in 6 and 12 dogs, respectively. The maintenance dose was 1 to 2.6 mg/kg twice daily per os over 3 to 10 weeks. Coagulation times improved in the 17 surviving animals within 24 h. PT and aPTT normalized in 3 dogs within 24 h, in 9 dogs within 48 h and in 5 dogs within 72 h. Three dogs died within the first 72 h due to intrathoracic haemorrhage. Despite severe haemorrhage an 85% survival rate was achieved with immediate intensive therapy including vitamin K1 and blood products.